Screening for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 in enterobacteriaceae: Is there a role for the modified hodge test?

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Abstract

Objective: The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme is a plasmid-encoded enzyme that inactivates carbapenem antibiotics. This study aims to ascertain if the modified Hodge test (MHT) has a role in screening for NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae with reduced carbapenem susceptibility. Methods: Over a period of one year, all Enterobacteriaceae isolates from all clinical specimens with reduced susceptibility to at least one carbapenem were subjected to MHT and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the NDM-1 gene. Results: A total of 13,098 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were screened and 63 (0.48%) had reduced susceptibility to at least one carbapenem. Out of the 63 isolates, 45 (71.4%) were MHT-positive. The NDM- 1 gene was detected in 18 of the 63 isolates (28.6%). All 18 PCR-positive isolates were also MHT-positive. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of the MHT in detecting NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae with reduced carbapenem susceptibility are 100% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion: The MHT is a useful test to screen for the presence of NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae with reduced carbapenem susceptibility. However, due to its rather low specificity, all MHT-positive isolates should be subjected to alternative tests (e.g. PCR) for confirmation, especially if other types of carbapenemases (e.g. KPC) are prevalent.

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Abidin, N. Z. Z., Sulong, A., Alfizah, H., Ding, C. H., Muttaqillah, N. A. S., & Rahman, M. M. (2015). Screening for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 in enterobacteriaceae: Is there a role for the modified hodge test? Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 31(6), 1340–1343. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.316.8159

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