A hybrid algal photosynthesis and ion exchange (HAPIX) process was developed that uses natural zeolite (chabazite) and wild type algae to treat high ammonium (NH4+) strength wastewater. In the HAPIX process, NH4+ is temporarily adsorbed from the liquid, which reduces the free ammonia (FA) concentration below the inhibitory level for algal growth. The slow release of adsorbed NH4+ subsequently supports the continuous growth of algae. In this study, a HAPIX reactor reduced NH4+-N concentrations in centrate from an anaerobic digester from 1180 mg L−1 to below 10 mg L−1 without dilution. Chabazite doses of 60 g L−1 produced more algal biomass, with higher protein and starch contents, than doses of 150 g L−1 and 250 g L−1. Approximately 67–70% of fatty acids in the algal biomass harvested from HAPIX reactors were unsaturated. A mathematical framework that couples a homogeneous surface diffusion model with a co-limitation algal kinetic growth model reasonably predicted the algal biomass production and NH4+-N concentrations in the HAPIX reactors. The HAPIX process has the potential to serve a two-fold purpose of high NH4+-N strength wastewater treatment and agricultural or commercial biopolymer production.
Wang, M., Payne, K. A., Tong, S., & Ergas, S. J. (2018). Hybrid algal photosynthesis and ion exchange (HAPIX) process for high ammonium strength wastewater treatment. Water Research, 142, 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.043