Root canal treatment is carried out on teeth in which irreversible pulpitis has led to necrosis of the dental pulp. As a treatment option it is an alternative to dental extraction. Mechanical preparation and irrigation with antiseptic or antibacterial solutions destroys bacteria and cleans the infected root canal. Irrigants should be effective in deactivating bacteria in the entire root canal space without causing any adverse tissue reactions. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine are commonly used but there is uncertainty as to which solution, concentration or combination is the most effective.
Fedorowicz, Z., Nasser, M., Sequeira-Byron, P., de Souza, R. F., Carter, B., & Heft, M. (2012). Irrigants for non-surgical root canal treatment in mature permanent teeth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd008948.pub2