There exist several variants of Additive Manufacturing (AM) applicable for metals and alloys. The two main groups are Directed Energy Deposition (DED) and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). AM has advantages and disadvantages when compared to more traditional manufacturing methods. The best candidate products are those with complex shape and small series and particularly individualized product. Repair welding is often individualized as defects may occur at various instances in a component. This method was used before it became categorized as AM and in most cases, it is a DED process. PBF processes are more useful for smaller items and can give a finer surface. Both DED and PBF products require subsequent surface finishing for high performance components and sometimes there is also a need for post heat treatment. Modelling of AM as well as eventual post-processes can be of use in order to improve product quality, reducing costs and material waste. The paper describes the use of the finite element method to simulate these processes with focus on superalloys.
Lindgren, L. E., Lundbäck, A., Fisk, M., & Draxler, J. (2019). Modelling additive manufacturing of superalloys. In Procedia Manufacturing (Vol. 35, pp. 252–258). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2019.05.036