In nanometer scale integrated circuits, concurrent insertion of repeaters and sequential elements into the global interconnect lines has been proposed to support multicycle communication - a concept known as interconnect pipelining. The design targets of an interconnect-pipelining scheme are to ensure high reliability, low-power consumption, and less delay cycles. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the reliability in terms of bit error rate (BER) and the power consumption of wire-pipelining scheme. In this analysis, the dependencies of power consumption and BER on the number of inserted flip-flops, and the size of repeaters are illustrated. To trade off the design targets (wire delay, BER, and power consumption), a methodology is developed to optimize the repeater size and the number of flip-flops inserted which maximize a user-specified figure of merit. The methodology is demonstrated by calculating optimal solutions for interconnect pipelining for some International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor technology nodes.
Xu, J., Roy, A., & Chowdhury, M. H. (2007). Power consumption and BER of flip-flop inserted global interconnect. VLSI Design, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/42829