Recently, evidence from both animal studies and human cases has emerged that a dysbiosis in the gut may be associated with certain forms of epilepsy. The ketogenic diet is an alternative treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, although its precise mechanism of action has been unclear. It has now been shown that the ketogenic diet changes the composition and function of the gut microbiome in epilepsy patients. Studies in mice have demonstrated that the gut microbiota was necessary for the therapeutic effect of the diet and a mechanism of action has been proposed, providing new potential strategies for treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of this discovery. Below, we will discuss the scientific evidence of the role of the microbiome in seizure disorders, the impact of the ketogenic diet on the intestinal microbiota as well as the interactions described between commonly used antiepileptic drugs and intestinal microbial communities. We also discuss the potential of modulators of the gut microbiota as possible future anti-seizure therapeutics.
Dahlin, M., & Prast-Nielsen, S. (2019, June 1). The gut microbiome and epilepsy. EBioMedicine. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.05.024