Distress is a critical problem in developed societies given its long-term negative effects on physical and mental health. The interest in studying this emotion has notably increased during last years, being electroencephalography (EEG) signals preferred over other physiological variables in this research field. In addition, the non-stationary nature of brain dynamics has impulsed the use of non-linear metrics, such as symbolic entropies in brain signal analysis. Thus, the influence of time-lag on brain patterns assessment has not been tested. Hence, in the present study two permutation entropies denominated Delayed Permutation Entropy and Permutation Min-Entropy have been computed for the first time at different time-lags to discern between emotional states of calmness and distress from EEG signals. Moreover, a number of curve-related features were also calculated to assess brain dynamics across different temporal intervals. Complementary information among these variables was studied through sequential forward selection and 10-fold cross-validation approaches. According to the results obtained, the multi-lag entropy analysis has been able to reveal new significant insights so far undiscovered, thus notably improving the process of distress recognition from EEG recordings.
Martínez-Rodrigo, A., García-Martínez, B., Zunino, L., Alcaraz, R., & Fernández-Caballero, A. (2019). Multi-lag analysis of symbolic entropies on EEG recordings for distress recognition. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2019.00040