Exercise-induced proteinuria has been observed and studied for more than a century. It was found that different sport disciplines alter the urinary proteome in different ways. Moderate-intensity exercise results in increased glomerular filtration, meaning that medium-sized proteins are excreted in higher amounts, while highintensity exercise of short duration also increases the excretion of low molecular weight proteins as a result of tubular dysfunction. Exhaustive exercise may lead to the excretion of hemoglobin or myoglobin, which changes the urinary proteome considerably. Studies comparing protein maps of different sport types compared to a control group showed that quality and quantity of urinary proteins are interindividually different. In addition, urine samples collected before and after exercise exhibit substantially different protein patterns even from the same person. Therefore, further studies investigating the urinary proteome are desirable. As the variation of protein content and composition in urine are generally much higher than in other matrices, respective studies need to be well controlled and homogenous groups of volunteers should be chosen. In addition to the sport-related physiological and biochemical interest, exercise-induced protein changes also need to be considered for biomarker measurements from urine samples for kidney or other diseases.
Kohler, M., Schänzer, W., & Thevis, M. (2015). Effects of exercise on the urinary proteome. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 845, 121–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9523-4_12