Free-volume type defects, such as vacancies, vacancy-agglomerates, dislocations, and grain boundaries represent a key parameter in the properties of ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline materials. Such free-volume type defects are introduced in high excess concentration during the processes of structural refinement by severe plastic deformation. The direct method of time-differential dilatometry is applied in the present work to determine the total amount and the kinetics of free volume by measuring the irreversible length change upon annealing of bulk nanocrystalline metals (Fe, Cu, Ni) prepared by high-pressure torsion (HPT). In the case of HPT-deformed Ni and Cu, distinct substages of the length change upon linear heating occur due to the loss of grain boundaries in the wake of crystallite growth. The data on dilatometric length change can be directly related to the fast annealing of free-volume type defects studied by in situ Doppler broadening measurements performed at the high-intensity positron beam of the FRM II (Garching, Munich, Germany). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Würschum, R., Oberdorfer, B., Steyskal, E. M., Sprengel, W., Puff, W., Pikart, P., … Pippan, R. (2012). Free volumes in bulk nanocrystalline metals studied by the complementary techniques of positron annihilation and dilatometry. In Physica B: Condensed Matter (Vol. 407, pp. 2670–2675). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2012.01.090