High-resolution melting analysis of the common c.1905+1G>A mutation causing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and lethal 5-fluorouracil toxicity

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Abstract

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is a pharmacogenetic syndrome associated with life-threatening toxicity following exposure to the fluoropyrimidine drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine (CAP), widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer and other solid tumors. The most prominent loss-of-function allele of the DPYD gene is the splice-site mutation c.1905+1G > A. In this study we report the case of a 73-year old woman with metastatic colorectal cancer who died from drug-induced toxicity after the first cycle of 5-FU-containing chemotherapy. Her symptoms included severe neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis and diarrhea; she died 16 days later despite intensive care measures. Post-mortem genetic analysis revealed that the patient was homozygous for the c.1905+1G > A deleterious allele and several family members consented to being screened for this mutation. This is the first report in Spain of a case of 5-FU-induced lethal toxicity associated with a genetic defect that results in the complete loss of the DPD enzyme. Although the frequency of c.1905+1G > A carriers in the white population ranges between 1 and 2%, the few data available for the Spanish population and the severity of this case prompted us to design a genotyping procedure to prevent future toxic effects of 5-FU/CAP Since our group had previously developed a high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for the simultaneous detection of KRAS, BRAF, and/or EGFR somatic mutations in colorectal and lung cancer patients considered for EGFR-targeted therapies, we included the DPYD c.1905+1G > A mutation in the screening test that we describe herein. HRM provides a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method that can be easily implemented in diagnostic settings for the routine pre-therapeutic testing of a gene mutation panel with implications in the pharmacologic treatment. © 2013 Borràs, Dotor, Arcusa, Gamundi, Hernan, de Sousa Dias, Mañé, Agúndez, Blanca and Carballo.

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Borràs, E., Dotor, E., Arcusa, À., Gamundi, M. J., Hernan, I., De Sousa Dias, M., … Carballo, M. (2013). High-resolution melting analysis of the common c.1905+1G>A mutation causing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and lethal 5-fluorouracil toxicity. Frontiers in Genetics, 3(JAN). https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2012.00312

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