© 2017 Jary HR et al. Background: Four million people die each year from diseases caused by exposure to household air pollution. There is an association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in children (half a million attributable deaths a year); however, whether this is true in adults is unknown. We conducted a case-control study in urban Malawi to examine the association between exposure to household air pollution and pneumonia in adults. Methods: Hospitalized patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia (cases) and healthy community controls underwent 48 hours of ambulatory and household particulate matter (µg/m3) and carbon monoxide (ppm) exposure monitoring. Multivariate logistic regression, stratified by HIV status, explored associations between these and other potential risk factors with pneumonia. Results: 145 (117 HIV-positive; 28 HIV-negative) cases and 253 (169 HIV-positive; 84 HIV-negative) controls completed follow up. We found no evidence of association between household air pollution exposure and pneumonia in HIV-positive (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.00 [95% CI 1.00–1.01, p=0.141]) or HIV-negative (e.g. ambulatory particulate matter aOR 1.00 [95% CI 0.99–1.01, p=0.872]) participants. Chronic respiratory disease was associated with pneumonia in both HIV-positive (aOR 28.07 [95% CI 9.29–84.83, p<0.001]) and HIV-negative (aOR 104.27 [95% CI 12.86–852.35, p<0.001]) participants. Conclusions: We found no evidence that exposure to household air pollution is associated with pneumonia in Malawian adults. In contrast, chronic respiratory disease was strongly associated with pneumonia.
Jary, H. R., Aston, S., Ho, A., Giorgi, E., Kalata, N., Nyirenda, M., … Mortimer, K. (2017). Household air pollution, chronic respiratory disease and pneumonia in Malawian adults: A case-control study. Wellcome Open Research, 2, 103. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.12621.1