Background: The polymorphisms involved in drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in HIV-1 CRF-BC, the most prevalent HIV-1 strain in China, have been poorly characterized. Results:To reveal the drug resistance mutations, we compared the gene sequences of pol region of HIV-1 CRF-BC from 631 treatment-naý̈ve and 363 treatment-experienced patients using the selection pressure-based method. We calculated an individual Ka/Ks value for each specific amino acid mutation. Result showed that eight polymorphic mutations (W88C, K101Q, I132L, R135L, T139K/R, H221Y and L228R) in RT for treatment-experienced patients were identified, while they, except for R135L, were completely absent in those from treatment-naý̈ve patients. The I132L and T139K/R mutants exhibited high-level resistance to DLV and NVP and moderate resistance to TMC-125 and EFV, while the K101Q and H221Y mutants exhibited an increased resistance to all four NNRTIs tested. The W88C, R135L, and L228R may be RTI-induced adaptive mutations. Y181C+K101Q mutant showed a 2.5-, 4.4-, and 4.7-fold higher resistance to TMC-125, NVP and EFV, respectively, than Y181C alone mutant, while Y181C+H221Y or K103N+H221Y mutants had significantly higher resistance to all four NNRTIs than Y181C or K103N mutants. K103N+T139K and G190A+T139K mutant induce higher resistance (2.0,14.2-fold and 1.5∼7.2-fold, respectively) to all four NNRTIs than K103N or G190A alone mutation. Conclusions:I132L and T139K/R are rare but critical mutations associated with NNRTI-resistance for some NNRTIs. K101Q, H221Y and T139K can enhance K103N/Y181C/G190A-assocated NNRTI-resistance. Monitoring these mutations will provide useful information for rational design of the NNRTI-based antiretroviral regimen for HIV-1 CRF-BC-infected patients. © 2014 Huang et al.
Huang, Y., Li, Z., Xing, H., Jiao, Y., Ouyang, Y., Liao, L., … Ma, L. (2014). Identification of the critical sites of NNRTI-resistance in reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 CRF-BC strains. PLoS ONE, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093804