Deleting part of the 3' end of the spinach chloroplast serine tRNA coding region, which destroyed the proper folding of its RNA transcript and resulted in the inhibition of tRNA processing, allowed the detection of a serine tRNA primary transcript. The transcription start site for this primary transcript, synthesized from the internal promoter, was mapped to -12 upstream from the mature tRNA coding region. Transcription analysis with various 5' deletion mutants suggested that the AT-rich region between -31 and -11, immediately upstream of the serine tRNA transcription start site, affects the transcription efficiency, and possibly the selection of transcription start site. Identification of the transcription start site for the spinach chloroplast serine tRNA gene in this study represents the first example of 5' end mapping of a tRNA precursor transcribed from chloroplast tRNA genes containing an internal promoter.
Wu, C. Y., Lin, C. H., & Chen, L. J. (1997). Identification of the transcription start site for the spinach chloroplast serine tRNA gene. FEBS Letters, 418(1–2), 157–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01373-2