The protein encoded by the ACR1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to a family of 35 related membrane proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome. Some of them are known to transport various substrates and products across the inner membranes of mitochondria, but the functions of 28 members of the family are unknown. The yeast A CR1 gene was introduced into Escherichia coli on an expression plasmid. The protein was over-produced as inclusion bodies, which were purified and solubilised in the presence of sarkosyl. The solubilised protein was reconstituted into liposomes and shown to transport fumarate and succinate. Its physiological role in S. cerevisiae is probably to transport cytoplasmic succinate, derived from isocitrate by the action of isocitrate lyase in the cytosol, into the mitochondrial matrix in exchange for fumarate. This exchange activity and the subsequent conversion of fumarate to oxaloacetate in the cytosol would be essential for the growth of S. cerevisiae on ethanol or acetate as the sole carbon source.
Palmieri, L., Lasorsa, F. M., De Palma, A., Palmieri, F., Runswick, M. J., & Walker, J. E. (1997). Identification of the yeast ACR1 gene product as a succinate-fumarate transporter essential for growth on ethanol or acetate. FEBS Letters, 417(1), 114–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01269-6