Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator (APSAC) in myocardial infarction has been proved to reduce mortality. A new front-loaded infusion regimen of 100 mg of rt-PA with an initial bolus dose of 15 mg followed by an infusion of 50 mg over 30 min and 35 mg over 60 min has been reported to yield higher patency rates than those achieved with standard regimens of thrombolytic treatment. The effects of this front-loaded administration of rt-PA versus those obtained with APSAC on early patency and reocclusion of infarct-related coronary arteries were investigated in a randomized multicenter trial in 421 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography 90 min after the start of treatment revealed a patent infarct-related artery (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] grade 2 or 3) in 84.4% of 199 patients given rt-PA versus 70.3% of 202 patients given APSAC (p = 0.0007). Early reocclusion within 24 to 48 h was documented in 10.3% of 174 patients given rt-PA versus 2.5% of 163 patients given APSAC. Late reocclusion within 21 days was observed in 2.6% of 152 patients given rt-PA versus 6.3% of 159 patients given APSAC. There were 5 in-hospital deaths (2.4%) in the rt-PA group and 17 deaths (8.1%) in the APSAC group (p = 0.0095). The reinfarction rate was 3.8% and 4.8%, respectively. Peak serum creatine kinase and left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up angiography were essentially identical in both treatment groups. There were more bleeding complications after APSAC (45% vs. 31%, p = 0.0019). Two intracranial hemorrhages (0.9%) occurred in each group, one of these (in the APSAC group) was fatal. Front-loaded administration of 100 mg of rt-PA yields a significantly higher early patency rate of the infarct-related artery in comparison with that achieved with APSAC. Although more early reocclusions occur after rt-PA than after APSAC treatment, hospital reinfarction rates are similar. The statistically significant difference in hospital mortality between the two patient groups needs to be confirmed by a further trial with mortality as a primary end point. © 1992.
Neuhaus, K. L., Von Essen, R., Tebbe, U., Vogt, A., Roth, M., Riess, M., … Haerten, K. (1992). Improved thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction with front-loaded administration of alteplase: Results of the rt-PA-APSAC patency study (TAPS). Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 19(5), 885–891. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(92)90265-O