Dendritic cells can be considered natural adjuvants and are able to act as cellular vaccines to protect against disease. Adoptive transfer of Ag-pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) enhanced expulsion of the intestinal nematode, Trichinella spiralis, from the small intestine. IL 9 is a critical cytokine in protective immunity to intestinal nematode infection and is believed to enhance Th2 immune responses. Deriving dendritic cells from an IL-9 transgenic (IL-9t) mouse has enabled a detailed investigation of the importance of IL-9 during Ag presentation. Indeed, IL-9t dendritic cells significantly enhanced T cell proliferation and Th2 responses and, after adoptive transfer, enhanced parasite-specific IgG1 and intestinal mastocytosis in vivo, leading to accelerated expulsion of adult worms from the intestine. Overall, this paper demonstrates that dendritic cell vaccination can be used to successfully protect the host against intestinal nematode infection and suggests that IL-9 can act as a potent type 2 adjuvant during Ag presentation and the early stages of Th2 activation.
Leech, M. D., & Grencis, R. K. (2014). Induction of Enhanced Immunity to Intestinal Nematodes Using IL-9-Producing Dendritic Cells. The Journal of Immunology, 176(4), 2505–2511. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.176.4.2505