The recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CS) based vaccine, RTS,S, confers protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection in controlled challenge trials and in field studies. The RTS,S recombinant antigen has been formulated with two adjuvant systems, AS01 and AS02, which have both been shown to induce strong specific antibody responses and CD4 T cell responses in adults. As infants and young children are particularly susceptible to malaria infection and constitute the main target population for a malaria vaccine, we have evaluated the induction of adaptive immune responses in young children living in malaria endemic regions following vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E and RTS,S/AS02D. Our data show that a CS-specific memory B cell response is induced one month after the second and third vaccine dose and that CS-specific antibodies and memory B cells persist up to 12 months after the last vaccine injection. Both formulations also induced low but significant amounts of CS-specific IL-2+ CD4+ T cells one month after the second and third vaccine dose, upon short-term in vitro stimulation of whole blood cells with peptides covering the entire CS derived sequence in RTS,S. These results provide evidence that both RTS,S/AS01E and RTS,S/AS02D induced adaptive immune responses including antibodies, circulating memory B cells and CD4+ T cells directed against P. falciparum CS protein. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00307021. © 2011 Agnandji et al.
Agnandji, S. T., Fendel, R., Mestré, M., Janssens, M., Vekemans, J., Held, J., … Mordmüller, B. (2011). Induction of Plasmodium falciparum-specific CD4+ T cells and memory B cells in gabonese children vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01E and RTS,S/AS02D. PLoS ONE, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018559