The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on the uptake and translocation of Cd, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mn by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two farmland soils typical for the central Polish rural environment were used. Studies involved soil analyses, contents of bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms for all investigated metals. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of the elements. The best correlation between the herbicide rate and the metal concentration was visibly for the underground part of plants. Analysis of variance proved that herbicide treatment of wheat frequently influences the metal transfer from soil and their concentration in roots and shoots. In particular, higher herbicide rates prompted the significant increase of all metals concentration in roots. Additionally, transfer coefficients depended on the type of soil and the herbicide rate applied. Uptake of metals may be also influenced by the formation of sparingly water-soluble metal-herbicide complexes. Its intensity would then depend on the solubility of particular chemical entity with the low solvable Pb, Cu and Cd complexes being the least mobile.
Skiba, E., Kobyłecka, J., & Wolf, W. M. (2017). Influence of 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides on uptake and translocation of heavy metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Environmental Pollution, 220, 882–890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.072