© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Evaluation of set up error detection by a transperineal ultrasound in comparison with a cone beam CT (CBCT) based system in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: Setup verification was performed with transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) and CBCT for 10 patients treated with EBRT for prostate cancer. In total, 150 ultrasound and CBCT scans were acquired in rapid succession and analyzed for setup errors. The deviation between setup errors of the two modalities was evaluated separately for each dimension. Results: A moderate correlation in lateral, vertical and longitudinal direction was observed comparing the setup errors. Mean differences between TPUS and CBCT were (-2.7±2.3) mm, (3.0±2.4) mm and (3.2±2.7) mm in lateral, vertical and longitudinal direction, respectively. The mean Euclidean difference between TPUS and CBCT was (6.0±3.1) mm. Differences up to 19.2mm were observed between the two imaging modalities. Discrepancies between TPUS and CBCT of at least 5mm occurred in 58% of monitored treatment sessions. Conclusion: Setup differences between TPUS and CBCT are 6mm on average. Although the correlation of the setup errors determined by the two different image modalities is rather week, the combination of setup verification by CBCT and intrafraction motion monitoring by TPUS imaging can use the benefits of both imaging modalities.
Richter, A., Polat, B., Lawrenz, I., Weick, S., Sauer, O., Flentje, M., & Mantel, F. (2016). Initial results for patient setup verification using transperineal ultrasound and cone beam CT in external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Radiation Oncology, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13014-016-0722-7