Objectives This study sought to evaluate acute and long-term outcomes of percutaneous paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) closure after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Background Severe symptomatic PVR is a predictor of all-cause mortality after TAVR. The current use of devices for transcatheter closure of PVR has been adapted from other indications without known long-term outcomes. Methods The study population consisted of a series of cases pooled together from an international multicenter experience. Patients underwent transcatheter implantation of a closure device for the treatment of clinically relevant PVR after TAVR with balloon-expandable or self-expandable prostheses. Procedural success was defined by successful deployment of a device with immediate reduction of PVR to a final grade ≤2 as assessed by echocardiography. Results Twenty-seven procedures were performed in 24 patients with clinically relevant PVR after the index TAVR procedure (54.2% Edwards Sapien [Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California], 45.8% CoreValve [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota]). The study population included 75% men with a mean age of 80.6 ± 7.1 years and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeon score of 6.6%. The most frequently used device was Amplatzer Vascular Plug (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Minnesota) in 80% of the cases. Overall, 88.9% (24 of 27) of the procedures were technically successful and the results assessed by echocardiography were durable. However, cumulative survival rates at 1, 6, and 12 months were 83.3%, 66.7%, and 61.5%. Most of the deaths (8 of 11) were due to noncardiac causes. Conclusions Transcatheter closure of PVR after TAVR can be performed with a high procedural success rate; however, the long-term mortality remains high mainly due to noncardiac causes.
Saia, F., Martinez, C., Gafoor, S., Singh, V., Ciuca, C., Hofmann, I., … O’Neill, W. W. (2015). Long-term outcomes of percutaneous paravalvular regurgitation closure after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A multicenter experience. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, 8(5), 681–688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2014.11.022