The purpose of the present pilot study was to explore the moderating role of basal inflammation on the effects of behavioral pain treatment in 41 patients with long-standing pain. Baseline pro-inflammatory status moderated behavioral treatment outcomes: higher pre-treatment levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-6 were related to less improvement in pain intensity, psychological inflexibility and in mental health-related quality of life. The treatment outcomes improved in the subgroup that had low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline, while the subjects with higher pro-inflammatory status did not. Altogether, results indicate that low-grade inflammation may influence the behavioral treatment outcomes and provide a possible explanation of the heterogeneity in treatment response.
Lasselin, J., Kemani, M. K., Kanstrup, M., Olsson, G. L., Axelsson, J., Andreasson, A., … Wicksell, R. K. (2016). Low-grade inflammation may moderate the effect of behavioral treatment for chronic pain in adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39(5), 916–924. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-016-9769-z