Metagenomics: Aid to combat antimicrobial resistance in diarrhea

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as an obstacle in the supple administration of antimicrobial agents to critical diarrheal patients. Most diarrheal pathogens have developed resistance against the major classes of antibiotics commonly used for assuaging diarrheal symptoms. Antimicrobial resistance develops when pathogens acquire antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) through genetic recombination from commensals and pathogens. These are the constituents of the complex microbiota in all ecological niches. The recombination events may occur in the environment or in the gut. Containment of AMR can be achieved through a complete understanding of the complex and diverse structure and function of the microbiota. Its taxonomic entities serve as focal points for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genetic determinants. Molecular methods complemented with culture-based diagnostics have been historically implemented to document these natural events. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of molecular epidemiology. It has revolutionized the method of addressing relevant problems like diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases and the issue of antimicrobial resistance. Metagenomics is one such next-generation technique that has proved to be a monumental advancement in the area of molecular taxonomy. Current understanding of structure, function and dysbiosis of microbiota associated with antimicrobial resistance was realized due to its conception. This review describes the major milestones achieved due to the advent and implementation of this new technique in the context of antimicrobial resistance. These achievements span a wide panorama from the discovery of novel microorganisms to invention of translational value.




De, R. (2019, October 14). Metagenomics: Aid to combat antimicrobial resistance in diarrhea. Gut Pathogens. BioMed Central Ltd.

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