Introduction: Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective: To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods: A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results: The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (pfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and pbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (pfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (pfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; pbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; pfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.
Pereira, T. S. S., Cade, N. V., Mill, J. G., Sichieri, R., & Molina, M. D. C. B. (2016). Use of the method of triads in the validation of sodium and potassium intake in the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil). PLoS ONE, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169085