A half-car vibration model of an electric vehicle driven by rear in-wheel motors was developed using bond graph theory and the modular modeling method. Based on the bond graph model, modal analysis was carried out to study the vibration characteristics of the electric vehicle. To verify the effectiveness of the established model, the results were compared to ones computed on the ground of modal analysis and Newton equations. The comparison shows that the vibration model of the electric vehicle based on bond graph theory not only is able to better compute the natural frequency but also can easily determine the deformation mode, momentum mode, and other isomorphism modes and describe the dynamic characteristics of an electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors more comprehensively than other modal analysis methods.
Tan, D., Wang, Q., & Wu, Y. (2017). Modal Analysis of In-Wheel Motor-Driven Electric Vehicle Based on Bond Graph Theory. Shock and Vibration, 2017, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6459154