OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple risk factor control (MRFC) at reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in clinical practice. DESIGN Population-based cohort study. SETTING Primary care database in the UK, linked with inpatient and mortality data. PARTICIPANTS Participants aged 40-79 years with type 2 diabetes and valid serum creatinine measurements, including 11 431 participants with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate: eGFR 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 36 429 participants with non-CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2). EXPOSURES MRFC consisted of four components: Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <53 mmol/mol (<7.0%), blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg, total cholesterol <5 mmol/L and no smoking. The main exposure variable was the number of risk factors controlled at baseline. OUTCOME MEASURES All-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the overall participants. Cardiovascular events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, in participants limited to those without a history of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. RESULTS In participants with CKD, 37% or 13% met three or four MRFC criteria, respectively. Increasing numbers of risk factors controlled were associated with lower relative hazards for all outcomes studied compared with those meeting no or one criterion. For participants with CKD meeting four criteria, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.60 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.69) and the adjusted subdistribution HR for cardiovascular mortality was 0.60 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.70), considering a competing risk of non-cardiovascular death. Participants meeting four criteria also had lower relative hazards for coronary heart disease (adjusted subdistribution HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91) and stroke (0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.89), considering death as a competing risk. CONCLUSIONS MRFC may lower the increased risks for mortality and cardiovascular events in people with diabetes and CKD. Further research is needed to evaluate appropriateness of MRFC according to individual participants' health status for improved management of cardiovascular risks in this population.
Hamada, S., & Gulliford, M. C. (2018). Multiple risk factor control, mortality and cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: A population-based cohort study. BMJ Open, 8(5). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019950