© 2016 Horimoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Cattle are major reservoirs of the provisionally named influenza D virus, which is potentially involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Here, we conducted a serological survey for the influenza D virus in Japan, using archived bovine serum samples collected during 2010-2016 from several herds of apparently healthy cattle in various regions of the country. We found sero-positive cattle across all years and in all the prefectural regions tested, with a total positivity rate of 30.5%, although the positivity rates varied among regions (13.5-50.0%). There was no significant difference in positivity rates for Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. Positivity rates tended to increase with cattle age. The herds were clearly divided into two groups: those with a high positive rate and those with a low (or no) positive rate, indicating that horizontal transmission of the virus occurs readily within a herd. These data demonstrate that bovine influenza D viruses have been in circulation for at least 5 years countrywide, emphasizing its ubiquitous distribution in the cattle population of Japan.
Horimoto, T., Hiono, T., Mekata, H., Odagiri, T., Lei, Z., Kobayashi, T., … Murakami, S. (2016). Nationwide distribution of bovine influenza D virus infection in Japan. PLoS ONE, 11(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163828