Neurologic complications are serious complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and prognosis in pediatric patients who had neurologic complications after allogeneic HSCT. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children and adolescents (19 years old or younger) who underwent allogeneic HSCT at our institution from 2000 to 2012. A total of 383 patients underwent 430 allogeneic transplantations. Among them, 73 episodes of neurologic complications occurred in 70 patients. The cumulative incidence of neurologic complications at day 400 was 20.0%. Almost two thirds of the episodes (63.0%, 46 of 73) occurred within 100 days after transplantation. Calcineurin inhibitor-related neurotoxicity was observed as the most common cause of neurotoxicity (47.9%, 35 of 73) and was significantly associated with earlier onset neurologic complications, seizure, and tremor. It also showed a significant association with lower probability of headache, abnormality of cranial nerve, and neurologic sequelae. In a multivariate analysis, days to neutrophil engraftment after HSCT, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the existence of neurologic sequelae were identified as risk factors for mortality in patients who had neurologic complications (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.15; P = .011; HR, 5.98; 95% CI, 1.71 to 20.90; P = .005; and HR, 4.37; 95% CI, 1.12 to 17.05; P = .034, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the 5-year overall survival between the patients who had neurologic complications without sequelae and the patients who did not have any neurologic complications (57.3% versus 61.8%, P = .906). In conclusion, we found that the major significant risk factors for mortality in pediatric recipients with neurologic complications were the existence of neurologic sequelae and extensive chronic GVHD.
Kang, J. M., Kim, Y. J., Kim, J. Y., Cho, E. J., Lee, J. H., Lee, M. H., … Yoo, K. H. (2015). Neurologic Complications after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children: Analysis of Prognostic Factors. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 21(6), 1091–1098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.02.007