This chapter presents the current state of knowledge concerning the cellular distribution and morphology, biochemistry, and physiology of the integral parts of the neuronal cytoskeleton. It further discusses their roles as mediators of certain neurological disease states. Microtubules in neuronsand in other cells are approximately 25 nm in diameter, have a wall thickness of approximately 5 nm, and possess an electronlucent lumen. Tubulin, the structural protein of the microtubule, is a heterodimer composed of two polypeptides. In adult brain, this protein comprises 10–30% of the soluble protein. Filament proteins from different molecular-weight groups are not related to each other by oligomerization and are not merely derived by proteolytic cleavage from a common precursor. Two characteristic neuronal lesions in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's senile dementia are the neuritic plaque formed by degenerating nerve cell processes inscribing a core of amyloid and the neurofibrillary tangle, which is formed of bundles of paired helical filaments.
Bush, M. S., Eagles, P. A. M., & Gordon-Weeks, P. R. (1996). The neuronal cytoskeleton. Cytoskeleton: A Multi-Volume Treatise. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1874-6020(96)80009-7