Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker dihydropyridine that has been used in the treatment of hypertension. The production of reactive species and calcium overload are the main contributors to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I / R) injury. We investigated the ability of novel dihydropyridines (DHPs) to improve the effect of protecting against the injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in cardioblasts when compared to nifedipine. Forty three DHPs were created varying the fatty chains derived from palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acids and aromatic moiety in addition to the addition of chemical elements such as chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, furfural, hydroxyl and methoxy. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of linoleic oxidation were evaluated for all new DHPs and also for nifedipine. The alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as antioxidants controls. The compounds with the best antioxidant potential were used in the ischemia and reperfusion (I / R) induction test in cardioblasts (H9c2). Cardioblasts were treated 24 h after assembly of plates and submitted to the ischemia simulation (30 min), after which, normoxia and cellular nutrition conditions were reestablished, simulating reperfusion (additional 30 min). Right after, cell viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. Cell viability during I / R was not altered in cells treated with nifedipine, BHT and the new DHP composed of palmitic acid with hydroxyl group in the aromatic substituent. The other new DHPs increased cell viability during I / R simulation and reduced levels of reactive species compared to the I / R group, demonstrating the antioxidant capacity of the new DHPs. Therefore, DHPS with palmitic and oleic acids in the C3 and C5 position with NO2 or Cl in aromatic moiety, presented the highest antioxidant potential (linoleic oxidant test). The new DHPs increased cell viability during I / R simulation and reduced levels of reactive species compared to the ischemia and reperfusion group, demonstrating the antioxidant capacity of the new DHPs. Taken together, these results indicate that those new DHPs have a greater cardioprotective antioxidant capacity to face the damages of ischemia and reperfusion.
Santa-Helena, E., da Costa Cabrera, D., Teixeira, S., Rodrigues, J., Catro, M., Montes D’Oca, M. G., … Neves Gonçalves, C. A. (2019). New fatty dihydropyridines present cardioprotective potential in H9c2 cardioblasts submitted to simulated ischemia and reperfusion. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 109, 1532–1540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.009