Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the leading cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). Previous studies indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might have therapeutic potential against sepsis. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of MSCs on sepsis and the underlying mechanisms focusing on inflammasome activation in macrophages. The results demonstrated that the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) significantly increased the survival rate and organ function in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mice compared with the control-grouped mice. BMSCs significantly restricted NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suppressed the generation of mitochondrial ROS, and decreased caspase-1 and IL-1 β activation when cocultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), the effects of which could be abolished by Mito-TEMPO. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-1, IL-1 β , and IL-18 in BMDMs were elevated after treatment with mitophagy inhibitor 3-MA. Thus, BMSCs exert beneficial effects on inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages primarily via both enhancing mitophagy and decreasing mitochondrial ROS. These findings suggest that restricting inflammasome activation in macrophages by increasing mitophagy and decreasing mitochondrial ROS might be a crucial mechanism for MSCs to combat sepsis.
Li, S., Wu, H., Han, D., Ma, S., Fan, W., Wang, Y., … Cao, F. (2018). A Novel Mechanism of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Mediated Protection against Sepsis: Restricting Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages by Increasing Mitophagy and Decreasing Mitochondrial ROS. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3537609