People with diabetes should receive nutrition counselling by a registered dietitian. Nutrition therapycan reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) by 1.0% to 2.0% and, when used with other components of diabetes care, can further improve clinical and metabolic outcomes. Reduced caloric intake to achieve and maintain a healthier body weight should be a treatment goal for people with diabetes who are overweight or obese. The macronutrient distribution is flexible within recommended ranges and will depend on individual treatment goals and preferences. Replacing high glycemic index carbohydrates with low glycemic index carbohydrates in mixed meals has a clinically significant benefit for glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Intensive lifestyle interventions in people with type 2 diabetes can produce improvements in weight management, fitness, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. A variety of dietary patterns and specific foods have been shown to be of benefit in people with type 2 diabetes. Consistency in carbohydrate intake and in spacing and regularity in meal consumption may help control blood glucose and weight.
Sievenpiper, J. L., Chan, C. B., Dworatzek, P. D., Freeze, C., & Williams, S. L. (2018). Nutrition Therapy. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 42, S64–S79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.10.009