Background: The main control strategy for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been based on the elimination of seropositive dogs, although this is not widely accepted. In this context, the use of a long-lasting protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has been highly expected. The aim of this work was to determine the timeline kinetics of the cytokine microenvironment derived from circulating leukocytes as supportive immunological biomarkers triggered by Leishmune® vaccine. Cross-sectional kinetic analysis of cellular immunity cytokines was carried out at three times (1, 6 and 12 months) after primovaccination with Leishmune®. In vitro short-term whole blood cultures were stimulated with Leishmania infantum soluble antigen (SLAg). The secreted cytokine signatures and their major sources were determined. Results: At six months after vaccination, Leishmune® induced an increase in IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-17a and TNF-α levels and a decrease in IL-10. Cytokine signature analysis revealed a shift in the microenvironment towards a pro-inflammatory profile mediated by IL-8 and IFN-γ. Both, CD4<sup>+</sup> (↑TNF-α<sup>+</sup> and ↑IFN-γ <sup>+</sup>) and CD8<sup>+</sup> (↑IL-17a and ↓IL-4) T-cells contributed to the acquired immune responses observed after stimulation with SLAg. Conclusions: The changes observed in the cytokine profile suggested that Leishmune® was able to induce an effective response at six months after primovaccination. After one year, it returned to baseline suggesting the need of additional boosting.
Costa-Pereira, C., Moreira, M. L., Soares, R. P., Marteleto, B. H., Ribeiro, V. M., França-Dias, M. H., … Araújo, M. S. S. (2015). One-year timeline kinetics of cytokine-mediated cellular immunity in dogs vaccinated against visceral leishmaniasis. BMC Veterinary Research, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0397-6