We present a general analysis of exchange devices linking their efficiency to the geometry of the exchange surface and supply network. For certain parameter ranges, we show that the optimal exchanger consists of densely packed pipes which can span a thin sheet of large area (an "active layer"), which may be crumpled into a fractal surface and supplied with a fractal network of pipes. We derive the efficiencies of such exchangers, showing the potential for significant gains compared to regular exchangers (where the active layer is flat), using parameters relevant to biological systems.
Farr, R. S., & Mao, Y. (2016). Optimal counter-current exchange networks. Physical Review E, 94(5). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.94.052410