In metal forming processes, friction between tool and workpiece is an important parameter influencing the material flow, surface quality and tool life. Theoretical models of friction in metal forming are based on analysis of the real contact area in tool-workpiece interfaces. Several research groups have studied and modelled the asperity flattening of workpiece material against tool surface in dry contact or in contact interfaces with only thin layers of lubrication with the aim to improve understanding of friction in metal forming. This paper aims at giving a review of the most important contributions during the last 80 years covering experimental techniques, upper bound solutions, slip-line analyses and numerical simulations. Each of the contributions shed light on the importance of the real contact area and the influencing parameters including the material properties, surface conditions, normal pressure, sliding length and speed, temperature changes, friction on the flattened plateaus and deformation of the underlying material. The review illustrates the development in the understanding of asperity flattening and the methods of analysis. Finally, the present paper discusses the necessary future work in order to advance further in modelling of real contact area in relation to implementation of frictional conditions existing finite element codes for simulation of metal forming processes.
Nielsen, C. V., & Bay, N. (2017). Overview of friction modelling in metal forming processes. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 207, pp. 2257–2262). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.10.991