Intercellular communications among plant cells are regulated mainly by metabolite-based hormones such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid, and ethylene. However, in recent years small peptides with a few to dozens of amino acids have been discovered as important cell-to-cell communication signals underlying many plant biological processes. These peptides act in a non-cell autonomous manner to coordinate defense and developmental processes including meristem maintenance, cell division, stomata development, reproduction, and nodulation. Although more than 1000 potential peptide hormones have been predicted in plant genomes, only dozens of them have been functionally characterized. From knowledge obtained so far, it seems evident that signals of these peptide hormones are exclusively perceived by leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases that represent the largest receptor family in plants. In this chapter, we provide a general overview on peptide coding genes, peptide processing and modification, and functions of known peptides. The challenge and perspective in peptide research are discussed.
Song, X. F., Ren, S. C., & Liu, C. M. (2017). Peptide hormones. In Hormone Metabolism and Signaling in Plants (pp. 361–404). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811562-6.00011-6