The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved along with turbulence models, namely k-ε, k-ω, Reynolds stress models (RSM), and filtered Navier-Stokes equations along with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to study the fully-developed turbulent flows in circular pipes roughened by repeated square ribs with various spacings. Solutions of these flows were obtained using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent. The numerical results were validated against experimental measurements and other numerical data published in literature. The performance of the turbulence models was compared and discussed. All the RANS models and LES model were observed to perform equally well in predicting the time-averaged flow statistics. However no instantaneous information can be obtained from the RANS results. Therefore, when a rough overview of the flow process in a pipe roughened by repeated ribs is needed, any one of the RANS models can be of value. On the other hand, the instantaneous as well as time-averaged flows could be studied with more insight using LES, albeit at a cost of CPU effort at least one order higher. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vijiapurapu, S., & Cui, J. (2010). Performance of turbulence models for flows through rough pipes. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 34(6), 1458–1466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2009.08.029