Because of the potential risk of tumor cell mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), it is crucial to evaluate any potential effect of plerixafor treatment in the presence of G-CSF on multiple myeloma (MM) cell mobilization. This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized, exploratory, safety study (NCT01753453) that investigated the extent of MM cell mobilization after treatment with G-CSF + plerixafor in patients who were deemed poor mobilizers of hematopoietic stem cells. The primary efficacy outcome was the number of MM cells in peripheral blood and apheresis product after G-CSF + plerixafor treatment versus G-CSF alone. Key secondary efficacy outcomes included overall survival and disease status up to 2 years after the first G-CSF dose. Twenty patients were randomized and received at least 1 dose of study treatment. There were no patients with MM cells in peripheral blood up to day 8 G-CSF administration in either treatment group. Up to day 8 no patient in the G-CSF + plerixafor arm and only 1 patient in the G-CSF arm mobilized at least 4.5 × 105 MM cells in the apheresis product. Nine of 10 patients from each treatment arm proceeded to transplantation. MM cells were detected in 5 patients from each treatment arm before and after transplantation. Adverse events observed in the G-CSF + plerixafor arm were consistent with the known safety profile of plerixafor. No MM cells were detected in peripheral blood of either treatment group up to day 8 of mobilization. Only 1 patient in the G-CSF alone group mobilized at least 4.5 × 105 MM tumor cells in apheresis product up to day 8. However, 50% of patients in both treatment arms had detectable amounts of MM cells in their peripheral blood pre- and post-transplantation. There were no new safety concerns with plerixafor.
Nahi, H., Celanovic, M., Liu, Q., Lund, J., & Peceliunas, V. (2019). A Pilot, Exploratory, Randomized, Phase II Safety Study Evaluating Tumor Cell Mobilization and Apheresis Product Contamination in Patients Treated with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Alone or Plus Plerixafor. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 25(1), 34–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.08.020