Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from water in Brazil was previously described as a hemorrhagic heat-labile cytotoxic-enterotoxin producer. We purified this toxin from culture supernatants using ion metallic affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by molecular exclusion chromatography. The pure toxin presented molecular mass of 50 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) around 6.9 by 2D electrophoresis. When injected intravenously, the purified cytotoxic-enterotoxin induced also severe spasms followed by sudden death of mice. Hence, we entitled it as lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE). The presence of membrane vesicles (MVs) on cell surfaces of P. shigelloides was observed by scan electron microscopy (SEM). From these MVs the LCE toxin was extracted and confirmed by biological and serological assays. These data suggest that P. shigelloides also exports this cytotoxic-enterotoxin by membrane vesicles, a different mechanism of delivering extra cellular virulence factors, so far not described in this bacterium.
Ludovico, M. S., Martins, L. M., Bianco, J. E. R., Andrade, C. G. T. de J., Falcon, R., Joazeiro, P. P., … Yano, T. (2016). Plesiomonas shigelloides exports a lethal cytotoxic-enterotoxin (LCE) by membrane vesicles. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 20(6), 546–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2016.08.014