Background: Inflammation and genetic instability are enabling characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PCa). Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is prevalent in early PCa. The relationship of PTEN deficiency to inflammatory signalling remains to be characterised. Objective: To determine how loss of PTEN functionality modulates expression and efficacy of clinically relevant, proinflammatory chemokines in PCa. Design, setting, and participants: Experiments were performed in established cell-based PCa models, supported by pathologic analysis of chemokine expression in prostate tissue harvested from PTEN heterozygous (Pten +/-) mice harbouring inactivation of one PTEN allele. Interventions: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)- or small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-directed strategies were used to repress PTEN expression and resultant interleukin-8 (CXCL8) signalling, determined under normal and hypoxic culture conditions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Changes in chemokine expression in PCa cells and tissue were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry; effects of chemokine signalling on cell function were assessed by cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, and survival assays. Results and limitations: Transient (siRNA) or prolonged (shRNA) PTEN repression increased expression of CXCL8 and its receptors, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2, in PCa cells. Hypoxia-induced increases in CXCL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 expression were greater in magnitude and duration in PTEN-depleted cells. Autocrine CXCL8 signalling was more efficacious in PTEN-depleted cells, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain- enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription and regulating genes involved in survival and angiogenesis. Increased expression of the orthologous chemokine KC was observed in regions displaying atypical cytologic features in Pten+/- murine prostate tissue relative to normal epithelium in wild-type PTEN (PtenWT) glands. Attenuation of CXCL8 signalling decreased viability of PCa cells harbouring partial or complete PTEN loss through promotion of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The current absence of clinical validation is a limitation of the study. Conclusions: PTEN loss induces a selective upregulation of CXCL8 signalling that sustains the growth and survival of PTEN-deficient prostate epithelium. © 2012 European Association of Urology.
Maxwell, P. J., Coulter, J., Walker, S. M., McKechnie, M., Neisen, J., McCabe, N., … Waugh, D. J. J. (2013). Potentiation of inflammatory CXCL8 signalling sustains cell survival in pten-deficient prostate carcinoma. European Urology, 64(2), 177–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.032