Background: The development of cardiogenic shock remains the most important factor affecting the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Despite significant advances in treatment, achieved in the last two decades, the mortality rate is still very high. The development of knowledge about the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock, necessitates a thorough and comprehensive assessment of its progress at all stages of medical care. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prehospital clinical presentation in patients with acute coronary syndrome complicated by cardiogenic shock. Methods: The population of our study consisted of 40 patients with acute coronary syndrome complicated by cardiogenic shock who were transported to the Intensive Cardiac Therapy Clinic by ambulances directly from place of the event in order to implement primary coronary intervention. The control group was selected among age, gender and infarct location-matched patients with acute coronary syndrome uncomplicated by shock. The clinical presentation in investigated patients was assessed on the basis of the data contained in the medical records of Emergency Medical Services teams. Results: In univariate logistic regression analysis eight prehospital clinical symptoms proved to be statistically significant predictors of the development of cardiogenic shock: fainting and/or impaired consciousness, pale skin, cold skin, clammy skin, dyspnea, pulmonary congestion, peripheral cyanosis and hyperglycemia >11,1 mmol/l. In the multivariate model significant predictors of cardiogenic shock development were: pale skin and hyperglycemia >11.1 mmol/l. A risk prediction model was constructed. It proved to differentiate patients from study and control group highly significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who develop cardiogenic shock, present a different clinical symptoms at the moment of the first medical contact. The proposed 4S Scale can be used for quick assessment of risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome before the development of a fully-blown cardiogenic shock with severe, long-lasting hypotonia.
Jaskiewicz, F., & Zielinska, M. (2018). Prehospital clinical presentation in patients with acute coronary syndrome complicated by cardiogenic shock: A single center study. Australian Critical Care. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2018.08.002