It is of considerable value in the management of breast cancer to be able to predict accurately the clinical course of the disease in the individual at the time of initial treatment Many factors have been used to identify patients who are at risk for recurrence of their disease. Lymph node status, tumour size, histological grade and type are widely accepted as reliable prognostic indicators. Other factors include age, menopausal status, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, DNA analysis, cellular kinetics, expression of oncogene and suppressor gene products. The precise clinical role of many prognostic indicators remains uncertain. Predictions of disease-free interval or overall survival tend to have greater accuracy when some of these factors are considered together rather than individually. A combination of the most reliable factors to form a Prognostic Index has shown considerable merit. A review of the current role and status of breast cancer prognostic factors is presented.
Ozga, C. W. (1997). Prognostic factors in breast cancer. Australian Journal of Medical Science, 18(2), 43–49. https://doi.org/10.2349/biij.1.1.e6-26