Psychological trauma associated with long-term injury can cause athletes to experience intense stress-like symptoms and considerable negative affect (e.g., Tracey, 2003; Udry, 1997). Due to the nature of competitive sport, however, it is thought that injured athletes inhibit these emotions to the detriment of their physical health. The present study examined Pennebaker’s (1989) emotional disclosure paradigm within a sporting context. It was hypothesized that writing about a traumatic injury would reduce athletes’ mood disturbance and stress during rehabilitation. Further, it was believed that these changes would correspond with an increase in immune expression from pre- to postintervention. Elite injured athletes (N = 9) rehabilitating from anterior cruciate ligament surgery participated in the 3-day writing intervention, consisting of 3 x 20 min writing sessions, during which athletes disclosed negative emotions associated with their injury and rehabilitation experiences. Measures were taken at six time-points (T1-T6), with pre- and postintervention phases lasting for 4 weeks each. Measures consisted of psychological stress (intrusion and avoidance), total mood disturbance, and relative cell-counts/μL for circulating T-cells (CD4/8) and NK cells (CD16/56). Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of time for intrusion, F(5, 70) = 5.83, p = .001, n2 = .29 and avoidance, F(5, 70) = 5.73, p = .002,n2 = 0.29 subscales; mood disturbance, F(5, 70) = 3.71, p = 0.005, n2 = 0.21; and CD4+, F(5, 65) = 2.39, p = 0.048, n2 = .16. Subsequent linear contrasts provided further evidence of significant prepost differences among the stress, mood state, and immune variables. These results suggest that the written disclosure intervention has potential psycho-immunological benefits for athletes rehabilitating from long-term injury.
Mankad, A., Gordon, S., & Wallman, K. (2009). Psycho-immunological effects of written emotional disclosure during long-term injury rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(3), 205–217.