Purpose: To investigate the added value of post-contrast VIBE (volumetric-interpolated breath-hold examination) to PET/MR imaging for pulmonary nodule detection in patients with primary malignancies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective institutional review board-approved study, with waiver of informed consent, included 51 consecutive patients who underwent <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MR followed by PET/CT for cancer staging. In all patients, the thorax was examined with pre-and post-contrast VIBE MR with simultaneous PET acquisition. Two readers blinded to the patients' data independently recorded their level of suspicion for pulmonary nodules based on PET, pre-contrast VIBE, and fused PET/MR images (first session), and reassessed them 4-weeks later after addition of post-contrast VIBE (second session). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating-characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed, with PET/CT as the reference standard. Results: A total of 151 pulmonary nodules (44 FDG-avid, 107 non-FDG-avid nodules) were detected on PET/CT, including 62 nodules≥5mm in diameter and 89 nodules<5mm. In the first session, the average nodule detection rate was 53.3% for all nodules, 97.7% for FDG-avid, 35.0% for non-FDG-avid nodules, 87.9% for nodules≥5mm and 29.2% for nodules<5mm. In the second session, the average detection rate was 53.3% for all nodules, 97.7% for FDG-avid, 35.0% for non-FDG-avid nodules, 85.5% for nodules≥5mm and 30.9% for nodules<5mm. The average JAFROC figure-of-merit was 0.837 in the first session and 0.848 in the second session. There were no significant differences in detection performance between sessions (P=0.48). Conclusion: The addition of post-contrast VIBE to hybrid PET/MR imaging provided no additional value in the detection of pulmonary nodules.
Lee, K. H., Park, C. M., Lee, S. M., Lee, J. M., Cho, J. Y., Paeng, J. C., … Goo, J. M. (2015). Pulmonary nodule detection in patients with a primary malignancy using hybrid PET/MRI: Is there value in adding contrast-enhanced MR imaging? PLoS ONE, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129660