Inhibitors of proteasomes have been shown to affect endocytosis of multiple membrane receptors, in particular at the step of cargo sorting for lysosomal degradation. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of proteasomes causes specific redistribution of an endosomal adaptor APPL1, which undergoes initial solubilization from APPL endosomes followed by clustering in the perinuclear region. MG132 treatment decreases APPL1 labeling of endosomes while the staining of the canonical early endosomes with EEA1 remains unaffected. Upon prolonged treatment with proteasome inhibitors, endogenous APPL1 localizes to the site of aggresome formation, with perinuclear APPL1 clusters encapsulated within a vimentin cage and co-localizing with aggregates positive for ubiquitin. The clustering of APPL1 is concomitant with increased ubiquitination and decreased solubility of this protein. We determined that the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 enhances polyubiquitination of APPL1, and the ubiquitin molecules attached to APPL1 are linked through lysine-63. Taken together, these results add APPL1 to only a handful of endogenous cellular proteins known to be recruited to aggresomes induced by proteasomal stress. Moreover, our studies suggest that the proteasome inhibitors that are already in clinical use affect the localization, ubiquitination and solubility of APPL1. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Pilecka, I., Sadowski, L., Kalaidzidis, Y., & Miaczynska, M. (2011). Recruitment of APPL1 to ubiquitin-rich aggresomes in response to proteasomal impairment. Experimental Cell Research, 317(8), 1093–1107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.02.002