Retrograde transport dependent on coat protein I (COPI) was impaired using two different approaches and the effects on the retrograde transport of protein toxins were investigated. One approach was to study ldlF cells that express a temperature-sensitive defect in the ε-COP subunit of COPI. The second approach was to treat cells with 1,3-cyclohexanebis(methylamine) (CBM), a drug that interferes with the binding of COPI to Golgi membranes. With both approaches, cells remained sensitive to a variety of protein toxins regardless of whether the toxins contained a KDEL motif. Moreover, cholera toxin, which contains a KDEL sequence, was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy to enter the endoplasmic reticulum of Vero cells in the presence of CBM. These data support published evidence indicating the presence in cells of a COPI- and KDEL receptor-independent pathway of retrograde transport from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the results suggest that certain toxins containing a KDEL motif may use either the COPI-dependent or COPI-independent pathway of retrograde transport. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, A., Hu, T., Mikoryak, C., & Draper, R. K. (2002). Retrograde transport of protein toxins under conditions of COPI dysfunction. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, 1589(2), 124–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4889(02)00163-5