Excessive iodide and fluoride coexist in the groundwater in many regions, causing a potential risk to the human thyroid. To investigate the mechanism of iodide- and fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity, human thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI), with or without sodium fluoride (NaF). Cell morphology, viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, apoptosis, and expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were assessed. Results showed 50. mM of KI, 1. mM of NaF, and 50. mM of KI +1. mM of NaF changed cellular morphology, decreased viability, and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. Elevated expression of binding protein (BiP), IRE1, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA and protein, as well as spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) mRNA, were observed in the 1. mM NaF and 50. mM KI +1. mM NaF groups. Collectively, excessive iodide and/or fluoride is cytotoxic to the human thyroid. Although these data do not manifest iodide could induce the IRE1 pathway, the cytotoxicity followed by exposure to fluoride alone or in combination with iodide may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure to the combination of excessive iodide and fluoride may cause interactive effects on thyroid cytotoxicity. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Liu, H., Zeng, Q., Cui, Y., Zhao, L., Zhang, L., Fu, G., … Wang, A. (2014). The role of the IRE1 pathway in excessive iodide- and/or fluoride-induced apoptosis in Nthy-ori 3-1 cells in vitro. Toxicology Letters, 224(3), 341–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.11.001