Role of serial polio seroprevalence studies in guiding implementation of the polio eradication initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011-2014

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Abstract

© 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals. Background. Nigeria was one of 3 polio-endemic countries before it was de-listed in September 2015 by the World Health Organization, following interruption of transmission of the poliovirus. During 2011-2014, Nigeria conducted serial polio seroprevalence surveys (SPS) in Kano Metropolitan Area, comprising 8 local government areas (LGAs) in Kano that is considered very high risk (VHR) for polio, to monitor performance of the polio eradication program and guide the program in the adoption of innovative strategies. Methods. Study subjects who resided in any of the 8 local government areas of Kano Metropolitan Area and satisfied age criteria were recruited from patients at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital (Kano) for 3 seroprevalence surveys. The same methods were used to conduct each survey. Results. The 2011 study showed seroprevalence values of 81%, 75%, and 73% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, among infants aged 6-9 months age. Among children aged 36-47 months, seroprevalence values were greater (91%, 87%, and 85% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In 2013, the results showed that the seroprevalence was unexpectedly low among infants aged 6-9 months, remained high among children aged 36-47 months, and increased minimally among children aged 5-9 years and those aged 10-14 years. The baseline seroprevalence among infants aged 6-9 months in 2014 was better than that in 2013. Conclusions. The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano.

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Craig, K. T. O., Verma, H., Iliyasu, Z., Mkanda, P., Touray, K., Johnson, T., … Vaz, R. G. (2016). Role of serial polio seroprevalence studies in guiding implementation of the polio eradication initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011-2014. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213, S124–S130. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv774

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