Seasonal Pattern in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Sweden

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Abstract

Aim. The aim of this study was to examine seasonal patterns in glucose tolerance and in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Altogether, 11 538 women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy during the years 2003-2005 in southern Sweden. GDM was defined by the 2-h capillary glucose concentration in the OGTT (≥8.9 mmol/L). Chi-squared test, analysis of variance, and regression analyses were used for statistical evaluations. Results. The seasonal frequency of GDM ranged from 3.3% in spring to 5.5% in summer (p<0.0001). Mean 2-h glucose concentrations followed the same seasonal trend, with a difference of 0.15 mmol/L between winter and summer (p<0.0001). The 2-h glucose level increased by 0.009 mmol/L for every degree increase in temperature (p<0.0001). In regression analysis, summer (June-August) was associated with increased 2-h glucose level (p<0.001) and increased frequency of GDM compared to the other seasons (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.83, and p<0.001). Conclusions. Our findings suggest seasonal variation in the 2-h glucose concentration in the OGTT and in the proportion of women diagnosed with GDM, with a peak in the summer.

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Katsarou, A., Claesson, R., Ignell, C., Shaat, N., & Berntorp, K. (2016). Seasonal Pattern in the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Sweden. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8905474

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