The understanding that sleep can give rise to, or exacerbate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and that good sleep hygiene improves attention and concentration tasks has sparked interest in the investigation of possible etiological relationships between sleep disorders and ADHD.Studies indicate that 30% of children and 60-80% of adults with ADHD have symptoms of sleep disorders such as daytime sleepiness, insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome, fractured sleep, restless legs syndrome, and sleep disordered breathing. The range and diversity of findings by different researchers have posed challenges in establishing whether sleep disturbances are intrinsic to ADHD or whether disturbances occur due to co-morbid sleep disorders. As a result, understanding of the nature of the relationship between sleep disturbances/disorders and ADHD remains unclear.In this review, we present a comprehensive and critical account of the research that has been carried out to investigate the association between sleep and ADHD, as well as discuss mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the elusive relationship between sleep disturbances, sleep disorders, and ADHD. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Yoon, S. Y. R., Jain, U., & Shapiro, C. (2012, August). Sleep in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: Past, present, and future. Sleep Medicine Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2011.07.001