© 2016 Yagdiran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S. aureus and lipopolysaccharide, an endotoxin secreted by E. coli. The studied transporters were Bcrp, Mdr1, Mrp1, Oatp1a5, Octn1 and Oct1. In addition, Csn2, the gene encoding β-casein, was analyzed. As biomarkers of the inflammatory response, gene expressions of the cytokines Il6 and Tnfa and the chemokine Cxcl2 were determined. Our results show that S. aureus and LPS treatment of cells, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, induced an up-regulation of Mdr 1 and of the inflammatory biomarkers, except that Tnfa was not affected by lipopolysaccharide. By simple regression analysis we could demonstrate statistically significant positive correlations between each of the transporters with each of the inflammatory biomarkers in cells treated with S. aureus. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) were 0.7-0.9 for all but one correlation. After treatment of cells with lipopolysaccharide, statistically significant correlations were only found between Mdr1 and the two parameters Cxcl2 and Il6. The expression of Csn2 was up-regulated in cells treated with S. aureus, indicating that the secretory function of the cells was not impaired. The strong correlation in gene expressions between transporters and inflammatory biomarkers may suggest a co-regulation and that the transporters have a role in the transport of cytokines and chemokines. Our results demonstrate that transporters in mammary cells can be affected by infection, which may have an impact on transport of essential compounds and contaminants into milk.
Yagdiran, Y., Tallkvist, J., Artursson, K., & Oskarsson, A. (2016). Staphylococcus aureus and lipopolysaccharide modulate gene expressions of drug transporters in mouse mammary epithelial cells correlation to inflammatory biomarkers. PLoS ONE, 11(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161346